Instructions for Authors

1 Scope and Editorial Policy

1.1 Scope of the Journal

Acta Pharmaceutica Sciencia (Acta Pharm. Sci.), formerly known as Bulletin of Pharmacy and Acta Pharmaceutica Turcica is a peer-reviewed scientific journal publishing current research and reviews covering all fields of pharmaceutical sciences since 1953.

The original studies accepted for publication must be unpublished work and should contain data that have not been published elsewhere as a whole or a part. The reviews must provide critical evaluation of the state of knowledge related with the subject.

All manuscripts has to be written in clear and concise English.
 

Starting from 2016, the journal will be issued quarterly both in paper and on-line formates also publish special issues for national or international scientific meetings and activities in the coverage field.

1.2 Manuscript Categories

Manuscripts can be submitted as Research Articles and Reviews.

1.2.1 Research Articles are definitive accounts of significant, original studies. They are expected to present important new data or provide a fresh approach to an established subject.

1.2.2 Reviews integrate, correlate, and evaluate results from published literature on a particular subject. They expected to report new and up to date experimental findings. They have to have a well-defined theme, are usually critical, and may present novel theoretical interpretations. Up to date experimental procedures may be included. Reviews are usually submitted at the invitation of the Editors. However, experts are welcome to contact the Editors to ensure that a topic is suitable. Approval is recommended prior to submission.

1.3 Prior Publication

Authors should submit only original work that has not been previously published and is not under consideration for publication elsewhere. Academic theses, including those on the Web or at a college Web site, are not considered to be prior publication.

1.4 Patents and Intellectual Property

Authors need to resolve all patent and intellectual property issues. Acceptance and publication will not be delayed for pending or unresolved issues of this type. Note that Accepted manuscripts and online manuscripts are considered as published documents.

1.5 Professional Ethics

Editors, reviewers, and authors are expected to adhere to internationally accepted criteria’s for scientific publishing.

1.5.1 Author Consent. Submitting authors are reminded that consent of all coauthors must be obtained prior to submission of manuscripts. If an author is removed after submission, the submitting author must have the removed author consent to the change by e-mail or faxed letter to the assigned Editor.

1.5.2. Plagiarism. Manuscripts must be original with respect to concept, content, and writing. It is not appropriate for an author to reuse wording from other publications, including one's own previous publications, whether or not that publication is cited. Suspected plagiarism should be reported immediately to the editorial office. Report should specifically indicate the plagiarized material within the manuscripts. Acta Pharmaceutica Sciencia uses iThenticate or Turnitin software to screen submitted manuscripts for similarity to published material. Note that your manuscript may be screened during the submission process.

1.5.3. Use of Human or Animal Subjects. For research involving biological samples obtained from animals or human subjects, editors reserve the right to request additional information from authors. Studies submitted for publication approval must present evidence that the described experimental activities have undergone local institutional review assessing safety and humane usage of study subject animals. In the case of human subjects authors must also provide a statement that study samples were obtained through the informed consent of the donors, or in lieu of that evidence, by the authority of the institutional board that licensed the use of such material. Authors are requested to declare the identification or case number of institution approval as well as the name of the licensing committee in a statement placed in the section describing the studies’ Material and Methods.

1.6 Issue Frequency

The Journal publishes 4 issues per year.

2 Preparing the Manuscript

2.1 General Considerations

Manuscripts should be kept to a minimum length. Authors should write in clear, concise English, employing an editing service if necessary. For professional assistance with improving the English, figures, or formatting in the manuscript before submission please contact to editorial office by e-mail for suggestions.

The responsibility for all aspects of manuscript preparation rests with the authors. Extensive changes or rewriting of the manuscript will not be undertaken by the Editors. A standard list of Abbreviations, Acronyms and Symbols is in section 5.

It is best to use the fonts “Times” and “Symbol.” Other fonts, particularly those that do not come bundled with the system software, may not translate properly. Ensure that all special characters (e.g., Greek characters, math symbols) are present in the body of the text as characters and not as graphic representations. Be sure that all characters are correctly represented throughout the manuscript—e.g., 1 (one) and l (letter l), 0 (zero) and O (letter o).

All text (including the title page, abstract, all sections of the body of the paper, figure captions, scheme or chart titles, and footnotes and references) and tables should be in one file. Graphics may be included with the text or uploaded as separate files. Manuscripts that do not adhere to the guidelines may be returned to authors for correction.

2.1.1 Articles of all kind. Use page size A4. Vertically orient all pages. Articles of all kind must be double-spaced including text, references, tables, and legends. This applies to figures, schemes, and tables as well as text. They do not have page limitations but should be kept to a minimum length. The experimental procedures for all of experimental steps must be clearly and fully included in the experimental section of the manuscripts.

2.1.2 Nomenclature. It is the responsibility of the authors to provide correct nomenclature. It is acceptable to use semisynthetic or generic names for certain specialized classes of compounds, such as steroids, peptides, carbohydrates, etc. In such a case, the name should conform to the generally accepted nomenclature conventions for the compound class. Chemical names for drugs are preferred. If these are not practical, generic names, or names approved by the World Health Organization, may be used.

Authors may find the following sources useful for recommended nomenclature:

· The ACS Style Guide; Coghill, A. M., Garson, L. R., Eds.; American Chemical Society: Washington DC, 2006.

· Enzyme Nomenclature; Webb, E. C., Ed.; Academic Press: Orlando, 1992.

· IUPHAR database of receptors and ion channels (http://www.guidetopharmacology.org/).

2.1.3 Compound Code Numbers. Code numbers (including peptides) assigned to a compound may be used as follows:

 · Once in the manuscript title, when placed in parentheses AFTER the chemical or descriptive name.

· Once in the abstract.

· Once in the text (includes legends) and once to label a structure. Code numbers in the text must correspond to structures or, if used only once, the chemical name must be provided before the parenthesized code number, e.g., “chemical name (JEM-398).” If appearing a second time in the text, a bold Arabic number must be assigned on first usage, followed by the parenthesized code number, e.g., “1 (JEM-398).” Subsequently, only the bold Arabic number may be used. All code numbers in the text must have a citation to a publication or a patent on first appearance.

Compounds widely employed as research tools and recognized primarily by code numbers may be designated in the manuscript by code numbers without the above restrictions. Their chemical name or structure should be provided as above. Editors have the discretion of determining which code numbers are considered widely employed.

2.1.4 Trademark Names. Trademark names for reagents or drugs must be used only in the experimental section. Do not use trademark or service mark symbols.

2.1.5 Interference Compounds. Active compounds from any source must be examined for known classes of assay interference compounds and this analysis must be provided in the General Experimental section. Many of these compounds have been classified as Pan Assay Interference Compounds (PAINS; see Baell & Holloway, J. Med. Chem. 2010, 53, 2719-2740). These compounds shown to display misleading assay readouts by a variety of mechanisms by forming reactive compounds. Provide firm experimental evidence in at least two different assays that reported compounds with potential PAINS liability are specifically active and their apparent activity is not an artifact.

2.2 Manuscript Organization

2.2.1 Title Page. Title: The title of the manuscript should reflect the purposes and findings of the work in order to provide maximum information in a computerized title search. Minimal use of nonfunctional words is encouraged. Only commonly employed abbreviations (e.g., DNA, RNA, ATP) are acceptable. Code numbers for compounds may be used in a manuscript title when placed in parentheses AFTER the chemical or descriptive name.

Authors' Names and Affiliations: The authors' full first names, middle initials, last names, and affiliations with addresses at time of work completion should be listed below the title. The name of the corresponding author should be marked with an asterisk (*).

2.2.2 Abstract and keywords. Articles of all types must have an abstract following the title page. The maximum length of the Abstract should be 150 words, organized in a findings-oriented format in which the most important results and conclusions are summarized. Code numbers may be used once in the abstract.

After the abstract, a section of Keywords not more than five has to be given. Be aware that the keywords, chosen according to the general concept, are very significant during searching and indexing of the manuscripts.

2.2.3 Introduction. The rationale and objectives of the research should be discussed in this section. The background material should be brief and relevant to the research described.

2.2.4. Methodology. Materials, synthetic, biological, demographic, statistical or experimental methods of the research should be given detailed in this section. The authors are free to subdivide this section in the logical flow of the study. For the experimental sections, authors should be as concise as possible in experimental descriptions. General reaction, isolation, preparation conditions should be given only once. The title of an experiment should include the chemical name and a bold Arabic identifier number; subsequently, only the bold Arabic number should be used. Experiments should be listed in numerical order. Molar equivalents of all reactants and percentage yields of products should be included. A general introductory section should include general procedures, standard techniques, and instruments employed (e.g., determination of purity, chromatography, NMR spectra, mass spectra, names of equipment) in the synthesis and characterization of compounds, isolates and preparations described subsequently in this section. Special attention should be called to hazardous reactions or toxic compounds. Provide analysis for known classes of assay interference compounds.

The preferred forms for some of the more commonly used abbrevations are mp, bp, ºC, K, min, h, mL, μL, g, mg, μg, cm, mm, nm, mol, mmol, μmol, ppm, TLC, GC, NMR, UV, and IR. Units are abbreviated in table column heads and when used with numbers, not otherwise. (See section 4 for more abbreviations)

2.2.5 Results and Discussion. This section could include preparation, isolation, synthetic schemes and tables of biological and statistical data. The discussions should be descriptive. Authors should discuss the analysis of the data together with the significance of results and conclusions. An optional conclusions section is not required.

2.2.6 Ancillary Information. Include pertinent information in the order listed immediately before the references.

PDB ID Codes: Include the PDB ID codes with assigned compound Arabic number. Include the statement “Authors will release the  atomic coordinates and experimental data upon article publication.”

Homology Models: Include the PDB ID codes with assigned compound Arabic number. Include the statement “Authors will release the atomic coordinates upon article publication.”

Corresponding Author Information: Provide telephone numbers and email addresses for each of the designated corresponding authors.

Present/Current Author Addresses: Provide information for authors whose affiliations or addresses have changed.

Author Contributions: Include statement such as "These authors contributed equally."

Acknowledgment: Authors may acknowledge people, organizations, and financial supporters in this section.

Abbreviations Used: Provide a list of nonstandard abbreviations and acronyms used in the paper, e.g., YFP, yellow fluorescent protein. Do not include compound code numbers in this list. It is not necessary to include abbreviations and acronyms from the Standard Abbreviations and Acronyms listed in section 4.

2.2.7 References and Notes. Number literature references and notes in one consecutive series by order of mention in the text. Numbers in the text are non-parenthesized superscripts. The accuracy of the references is the responsibility of the author. List all authors; do not use et al. Provide inclusive page numbers. Titles may have capitalization of first word only (excluding, for example, acronyms and trade names) or standard capitalization as shown below. The chosen style should be used consistently throughout the references. Double-space the references using the following format.

· For journals: Rich, D. H.; Green, J.; Toth, M. V.; Marshall, G. R.; Kent, S. B. H. Hydroxyethylamine Analogues of the p17/p24 Substrate Cleavage Site Are Tight Binding Inhibitors of HIV Protease. J. Med. Chem. 199033, 1285-1288.

· For online early access: Rubner, G.; Bensdorf, K.; Wellner, A.; Kircher, B.; Bergemann, S.; Ott, I.; Gust, R. Synthesis and Biological Activities of Transition Metal Complexes Based on Acetylsalicylic Acid as Neo-Anticancer Agents. J. Med. Chem. [Online early access]. DOI: 10.1021/jm101019j. Published Online: September 21, 2010.

· For periodicals published in electronic format only: Author 1; Author 2; Author 3; etc. Title of Article. Journal Abbreviation [Online] YearVolume, Article Number or other identifying information.

· For monographs: Casy, A. F.; Parfitt, R. T. Opioid Analgesics; Plenum: New York, 1986.

· For edited books: Rall, T. W.; Schleifer, L. S. Drugs Effective in the Therapy of the Epilepsies. In The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 7th ed.; Gilman, A. G., Goodman, L. S., Rall, T. W., Murad, F., Eds.; Macmillan: New York, 1985; pp 446-472

List submitted manuscripts as “in press” only if formally accepted for publication. Manuscripts available on the Web with a DOI number are considered published. For manuscripts not accepted, use “unpublished results” after the names of authors. Incorporate notes in the correct numerical sequence with the references. Footnotes are not used.

2.2.8 Tables. Tabulation of experimental results is encouraged when this leads to more effective presentation or to more economical use of space. Tables should be numbered consecutively in order of citation in the text with Arabic numerals. Footnotes in tables should be given italic lowercase letter designations and cited in the tables as superscripts. The sequence of letters should proceed by row rather than by column. If a reference is cited in both table and text, insert a lettered footnote in the table to refer to the numbered reference in the text. Each table must be provided with a descriptive title that, together with column headings, should make the table self-explanatory. Titles and footnotes should be on the same page as the table. Tables may be created using a word processor’s text mode or table format feature. The table format feature is preferred. Ensure each data entry is in its own table cell. If the text mode is used, separate columns with a single tab and use a return at the end of each row. Tables may be inserted in the text where first mentioned or may be grouped after the references.

2.2.9 Figures, Schemes/Structures, and Charts. The use of illustrations to convey or clarify information is encouraged. Structures should be produced with the use of a drawing program such as ChemDraw. Authors using other drawing packages should, in as far as possible, modify their program’s parameters so that they conform to ChemDraw preferences. Remove all color from illustrations, except for those you would like published in color. Illustrations may be inserted into the text where mentioned or may be consolidated at the end of the manuscript. If consolidated, legends should be grouped on a separate page(s). Include as part of the manuscript file.

To facilitate the publication process, please submit manuscript graphics using the following guidelines:

1. The preferred submission procedure is to embed graphic files in a Word document. It may help to print the manuscript on a laser printer to ensure all artwork is clear and legible.

2. Additional acceptable file formats are: TIFF, PDF, EPS (vector artwork) or CDX (ChemDraw file). If submitting individual graphic files in addition to them being embedded in a Word document, ensure the files are named based on graphic function (i.e. Scheme 1, Figure 2, Chart 3), not the scientific name. Labeling of all figure parts should be present and the parts should be assembled into a single graphic.

EPS files: Ensure that all fonts are converted to outlines or embedded in the graphic file. The document settings should be in RGB mode. NOTE: While EPS files are accepted, the vector-based graphics will be rasterized for production. Please see below for TIFF file production resolutions.

3. TIFF files (either embedded in a Word doc or submitted as individual files) should have the following resolution requirements:

- Black & White line art: 1200 dpi

- Grayscale art (a monochromatic image containing shades of gray): 600 dpi

- Color art (RGB color mode): 300 dpi

· The RGB and resolution requirements are essential for producing high-quality graphics within the published manuscript. Graphics submitted in CMYK or at lower resolutions may be used; however, the colors may not be consistent and graphics of poor quality may not be able to be improved.

· Most graphic programs provide an option for changing the resolution when you are saving the image. Best practice is to save the graphic file at the final resolution and size using the program used to create the graphic.

4. Graphics should be sized at the final production size when possible. Single column graphics are preferred and can be sized up to 240 points wide (8.38 cm.). Double column graphics must be sized between 300 and 504 points (10.584 and 17.78 cm’s). All graphics have a maximum depth of 660 points (23.28 cm.) including the caption (please allow 12 points for each line of caption text).

Consistently sizing letters and labels in graphics throughout your manuscript will help ensure consistent graphic presentation for publication.

2.2.10 Image Manipulation. Images should be free from misleading manipulation. Images included in an account of research performed or in the data collection as part of the research require an accurate description of how the images were generated and produced. Apply digital processing uniformly to images, with both samples and controls. Cropping must be reported in the figure legend. For gels and blots, use of positive and negative controls is highly recommended. Avoid high contrast settings to avoid overexposure of gels and blots. For microscopy, apply color adjustment to entire image and note in the legend. When necessary, authors should include a section on equipment and settings to describe all image acquisition tools, techniques and settings, and software used. All final images must have resolutions of 300 dpi or higher. Authors should retain unprocessed data in the event that the Editors request them.

2.3 Specialized Data

2.3.1 Biological Data. Quantitative biological data are required for all tested compounds. Biological test methods must be referenced or described in sufficient detail to permit the experiments to be repeated by others. Detailed descriptions of biological methods should be placed in the experimental section. Standard compounds or established drugs should be tested in the same system for comparison. Data may be presented as numerical expressions or in graphical form; biological data for extensive series of compounds should be presented in tabular form.

Active compounds obtained from combinatorial syntheses should be resynthesized and retested to verify that the biology conforms to the initial observation. Statistical limits (statistical significance) for the biological data are usually required. If statistical limits cannot be provided, the number of determinations and some indication of the variability and reliability of the results should be given. References to statistical methods of calculation should be included.

Doses and concentrations should be expressed as molar quantities (e.g., mol/kg, μmol/kg, M, mM). The routes of administration of test compounds and vehicles used should be indicated, and any salt forms used (hydrochlorides, sulfates, etc.) should be noted. The physical state of the compound dosed (crystalline, amorphous; solution, suspension) and the formulation for dosing (micronized, jet-milled, nanoparticles) should be indicated. For those compounds found to be inactive, the highest concentration (in vitro) or dose level (in vivo) tested should be indicated.

If human cell lines are used, authors are strongly encouraged to include the following information in their manuscript:

· the cell line source, including when and from where it was obtained;

· whether the cell line has recently been authenticated and by what method;

· whether the cell line has recently been tested for mycoplasma contamination.

2.3.2 Purity of Tested Compounds.

Methods: All scientifically established methods of establishing purity are acceptable. If the target compounds are solvated, the quantity of solvent should be included in the compound formulas. No documentation is required unless asked by the editors.

Purity Percentage: All tested compounds, whether synthesized or purchased, should possess a purity of at least 95%. Target compounds must have a purity of at least 95%. In exceptional cases, authors can request a waiver when compounds are less than 95% pure. For solids, the melting point or melting point range should be reported as an indicator of purity.

Elemental analysis: Found values for carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen (if present) should be within 0.4% of the calculated values for the proposed formula.

2.3.3 Confirmation of Structure. Adequate evidence to establish structural identity must accompany all new compounds that appear in the experimental section. Sufficient spectral data should be presented in the experimental section to allow for the identification of the same compound by comparison. Generally, a listing of 1H or 13C NMR peaks is sufficient. However, when the NMR data are used as a basis of structural identification, the peaks must be assigned.

List only infrared absorptions that are diagnostic for key functional groups. If a series contains very closely related compounds, it may be appropriate merely to list the spectral data for a single representative member when they share a common major structural component that has identical or very similar spectral features.

3 Submitting the Manuscript

3.1 Communication and log in to Author’s Module All submissions to Acta Pharmaceutica Sciencia should be made by using e-Collittera (Online Article Acceptance and Evaluation) system on the journal main page (www. actapharmsci.com)

3.2 Registration to System It is required to register into the e-Collittera system for the first time while entering by clicking “Create Account” button on the registration screen and the fill the opening form with real information. Some of the information required in form is absolutely necessary and the registration will not work if these fields are not completely filled.

After the registration, a “Welcome” mail is sent to the user by the system automatically reminding user name and password. Authors are expected to return to the entry screen and log on with their user name and password for the submission. Please use only English characters while determining your username and password.

If you already registered into the e-Collittera system and forget your password, you should click on “Forgot My Password” button and your user name and password will be mailed to your e-mail in a short while.

3.3 Submitting A New Article The main page of author module consists of various parts showing the situation of manuscripts in process. By clicking the New Manuscript button, authors create the beginning of new submission, a process with a total of 9 consecutive levels. In first 7 levels, information such as the article’s kind, institutions, authors, title, summary, keywords etc. are asked respectively as entered. Authors can move back and forth while the information is saved automatically. If the is transaction is discontinued, the system move the new submission to “Partially Submitted Manuscripts” part and the transaction can be continued from here.

 

3.1.1 Sort of Article Authors should first select the type of article from the drop down menu.

 

Warning. If “Return to Main Page” button is clicked after this level, the article automatically assined as “Partially Submitted Manuscripts”.

 

3.2.2 Institutions Authors should give their institutional information during submission.

 

3.2.3 Authors The authors’ surnames, names, institutional information appear as entered order in the previous page. Filling all e-mail adresses are required. Institutional information is available in Manuscript Details table at the top of the screen. After filling all required fields, you may click the Continue button.

3.2.4 Title should be English, explaining the significance of the study. If the title includes some special characters such as alpha, beta, pi or gamma, they can easily be added by using the Title window. You may add the character by clicking the relevant button and the system will automatically add the required character to the text.

Warning. No additions to cornered parenthesis are allowed. Otherwise the system will not be able to show the special characters.

3.2.5 Abstract The summary of the article should be entered to Abstract window at this level. There must be an English summary for all articles and the quantity of words must be not more than 150. If special characters such as alpha, beta, pi or gamma are used in summary, they can be added by Abstract window. You may add the character by clicking the relevant button and the system will automatically add the required character to the text. The abstract of the articles are accessible for arbitrators; so you should not add any information related to the institutions and authors in this summary part. Otherwise the article will returned without evaluation. Authors will be required to comply with the rules.

Warning. No additions to cornered parenthesis are allowed. Otherwise the system will not be able to show the special characters.

3.2.6 Keywords There must be five words to define the article at the keywords window, which will diverged with commas. Authors should pay attention to use words, which are appropriate for “Medical Subjects Headings” list by National Library of Medicine (NLM).

3.2.7 Cover Letter If the submitting article was published as thesis and/or presented in a congress or elsewhere, all information of thesis, presented congress or elsewhere should be delivered to the editor and must be mentioned by the “Cover Letter” field.

3.3.1 Adding Article This process consists four different steps beginning with the loading of the article in to system. Browse button is used to reach the article file, under the Choose a file to upload tab. After finding the article you may click to Choose File and file will be attached.

Second step is to select the file category. Options are: Main Document, Black and White Figure, Color Figure and Video.

The explanation of the files (E.g.. Figure 1, Full Text Word File, supplements etc.) should be added on third step and the last step is submitting the prepared article into the system. Therefore, Download button under the Send your file by clicking on download button tab is clicked.

Reminder If the prepared article includes more than one file (such as main document, black and white figure, video), the transaction will be continued by starting from the first step. The image files must be in previously defined format. After all required files were added, Continue button should be clicked. All details and features of the article might be reached from the Article Information page.

This page is the last step of the transaction which ensures that entered information is controlled.

3.3.2 Your Files After adding the article you may find all information related to article under Your Files window.

File Information This window includes file names, sizes, forming dates, categories, order numbers and explanations of files. The details about the files can be reached by clicking on Information button.

If you click on Name of File, the file download window will be opened to reach the copy of the file in system.

File Download This window submits two alternatives, one of them is to ensure the file to be opened in valid site and the second one is to ensure to download submitted file into the computer.

Opening the Category part on fourth column can change the category of the file.

Opening the Order column on fifth column can change the order of file.

The file can be deleted by clicking on Delete button on the last column. Before deleting, system will ask the user again if it’s appropriate or not.

3.3.3 Sending Article Last level is submitting the article and the files into the system. Before continuing the transaction, Article Information window must be controlled where it is possible to return back; by using Previous button and required corrections can be made. If not, clicking the Send the Article button completes transaction.

3.3.4 Page to Follow The Article The Main Page of Author ensures possibility to follow the article. This page consists three different parts; some information and bridges related to the sent articles, revision required articles and the articles that are not completed to be sent.

3.3.4.1 Articles Not Completed to be Sent After the sending transaction was started, if article is not able to continue until the ninth step or could not be sent due to technical problems shown at this part. Here you can find the information such as the article’s number which is assigned by system, title and formation date. You may delete the articles by using Delete button on the right column, if the article is not considered to send into the system.

3.3.4.2 Articles That Require Revision Articles, which were evaluated by the referee and accepted by the editor with revision, continues to Waiting for Revision table.

The required revisions can be seen in “Notes” part by clicking the articles title.

In order to send any revision, Submit Revision button on the last column should be clicked. This connection will take the author to the first level of Adding Article and the author can complete the revision transaction by carrying out the steps one by one. All changes must be made in the registered file and this changed file must be resent. Author’s most efficacious replies relating to the changes must be typed in “Cover Letter” part.

If the is transaction is discontinued, the system move the revised article to Submitted Manuscripts part and the transaction can be continued from here.

After the transaction was completed, the system moves the revised article to “Submitted Manuscripts” part.

3.3.5 Submitted Manuscripts Information related to articles can be followed through the Submitted Manuscripts line. Here you can find the information such as the article’s number assigned by system, title, sending date and transaction situation. The Manuscript Details and summary files can be reached by clicking the title of the article and the Processing Status part makes it possible to follow the evaluation process of the article.

4.Standard Abbreviations and Acronyms

α

observed optical rotation in degrees

it

intrathecal

[α]

specific rotation [expressed without units; the units, (deg⋅mL)/(g⋅dm),are understood]

iv

intravenous

δ

chemical shift in parts per million downfield from tetramethylsilane

IVUS

intravascular ultrasound

μ

micro

J

coupling constant (in NMR spectrometry)

Å

angstrom(s)

K

kelvin(s) (absolute temperature)

°C

degrees Celsius

k

kilo

2-D

two-dimensional (also 2D)

Ki

inhibition constant

3-D

three-dimensional (also 3D)

Km

Michaelis constant

5HT

5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin)

L

liter(s)

9-BBN

9-borabicyclo[3.3.1]nonyl

LAH

lithium aluminum hydride

9-BBN–H

9-borabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane

LBD

ligand binding domain

aa

amino acid

LC

liquid chromatography

AA

arachidonic acid

LC-MS

liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry

Ac

acetyl

LCAO

linear combination of atomic orbitals

Acac

acetylacetonate

LD50

dose that is lethal in 50% of test subjects

AcCh; ACh

acetylcholine

LDA

lithium diisopropylamide; local density

 approximation

AcChE; AChE

acetylcholine esterase

LDL-C

low-density lipoprotein cholesterol

ACE

angiotensin-converting enzyme

LE

ligand efficiency

ACP

acyl carrier protein

LFER

linear free energy relationship

ACTH

adrenocorticotropic hormone

LFT

liver function test

AD

Alzheimer’s disease

LH

luteinizing hormone

ADH

antidiuretic hormone

LHMDS

lithium hexamethyldisilazane;

lithium bis(trimethylsilyl)amide

ADME

absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion

LHRH

luteinizing hormone releasing hormone

ADMET

absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity

lit.

literature value (abbreviation used with period)

ADP

adenosine 5'-diphosphate

LogP

logarithm of partition coefficient

ADR

adverse drug reaction

LPS

lipopolysaccharide

AE

adverse event

LTMP

lithium 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidide

AIBN

2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile

LTP

long-term potentiation

AIDS

acquired immune deficiency syndrome

LUMO

lowest unoccupied molecular orbital

ALK

anaplastic lymphoma kinase

M

molar (moles per liter); mega

ALS

amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

m

multiplet (spectral); meter(s);

 milli; isotopic mass;

 magnetic quantum number

(ESR and NMR spectroscopy);

 meta; molal (mol kg-1)

AM1

Austin model 1

m-CPBA

meta-chloroperoxybenzoic acid

AMI

acute myocardial infarction

m/z

mass-to-charge ratio (not m/e)

AML

acute myelogenous leukemia

M+

parent molecular ion

AMP

adenosine 5'-monophosphate; adenosine 5'-phosphate

mAcChR

muscarinic ACh receptor

AMPA

2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4- isoxazolyl)propionic acid

MALDI

matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization

Anal.

combustion elemental analysis

MAP

mean arterial pressure

anhyd; anh

anhydrous

MAPK

mitogen-activated protein kinase

ANP

atrial natriuretic peptide

max

maximum

antilog

antilogarithm

MCD

magnetic circular dichroism

AO

atomic orbital

MCR

multicomponent reaction

API

active pharmaceutical ingredient

MCSCF

multi-configuration self-consistent field

ApoB

Apolipoprotein B

MD

molecular dynamics

ApoE

Apolipoprotein E

MDR

multidrug resistance

APP

amyloid-b precursor protein

Me

methyl

aq

aqueous

MED

medium effective dose/minimum

efficacious dose

Ar

aryl

MEM

(2-methoxyethoxy)methyl

ARB

angiotensin receptor blocker

Mes

2,4,6-trimethylphenyl (mesityl)

[not methylsulfonyl (mesyl)]

ARDS

adult respiratory distress syndrome

mGluR

metabotropic glutamate receptor

atm

atmosphere(s)

MHC

major histocompatibility complex

ASO

antisense oligonucleotide

MHz

megahertz

ATP

adenosine 5'-triphosphate

MIC

minimal inhibitory concentration

ATPase

adenosine triphosphatase

min

minute(s); minimum

AUC

area under the curve

mL

milliliter

b.i.d.

twice a day

mM

millimolar (millimoles per liter)

B3LYP

3-parameter hybrid Becke exchange/ Lee–Yang–Parr correlation functional

MMP

matrix metalloproteinase

BACE

beta-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme

MO

molecular orbital

BACE-1

beta-secretase

MOA

mechanism of action

BBB

blood-brain barrier

mol

mole(s); molecular (as in mol wt)

BChE; BuChE

butyrylcholinesterase

MOM

methoxymethyl

BMI

body mass index

mp

melting point

Bn

benzyl

MP

Møller–Plesset perturbation theory

BOC, boc

tert-butoxycarbonyl

MRCI

multi-reference configuration interaction

bp

boiling point; base pair

MRSA

methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

BPH

Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy

MRI

magnetic resonance imaging

BRCA1

breast cancer gene 1

mRNA

messenger RNA

BSA

bovine serum albumin

mRNA

messenger ribonucleic acid

Bu, n-Bu

normal (primary) butyl

MS

mass spectrometry

BUN

blood urea nitrogen

Ms

methylsulfonyl (mesyl)

Bz

benzoyl (not benzyl)

MTBE

methyl tert-butyl ether

Bcl-xL

B-cell lymphoma-extra large

MTD

maximum tolerated dose

BMI

body mass index

MW, mol wt

molecular weight

Bn

benzyl

nAcChR

nicotinic ACh receptor

BOC, boc

tert-butoxycarbonyl

NAD+

nicotinamide adenine

 dinucleotide

bp

boiling point; base pair

NAD

reduced nicotinamide adenine

 dinucleotide

BPH

Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy

NADP

nicotinamide adenine

dinucleotide phosphate

BRCA1

breast cancer gene 1

NADPH

reduced nicotinamide adenine

dinucleotide phosphate

BSA

bovine serum albumin

NAM

negative allosteric modulator

Bu, n-Bu

normal (primary) butyl

NBO

natural bond orbital

BUN

blood urea nitrogen

NBS

N-bromosuccinimide

Bz

benzoyl (not benzyl)

NCE

new chemical entity

ca.

circa, about [used before an approximate date or figure (ca.1960)]

NCI

National Cancer Institute

CADD

computer-assisted drug design

NCS

N-chlorosuccinimide

calcd

calculated

NDA

new drug application

cAMP

3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate

NE

norepinephrine

CAN

ceric ammonium nitrate

NF-kB

nuclear factor k B

CASPT2

complete active space with second- order perturbation theory

NICS

nucleus-independent chemical shift

CASSCF

complete active space self-consistent field

NIH

National Institutes of Health

cat

catalytic

nm

nanometer(s)

CB

cannabinoid

NMDA

N-methyl-D-aspartic acid

CBC

complete blood count

NME

new molecular entity

CBZ, Cbz

benzyloxycarbonyl (preferred over the abbreviation Z)

NMO

N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide

CC

coupled cluster

NMP

N-methylpyrrolidone

CCK

cholecystokinin

NMR

nuclear magnetic resonance

CD

circular dichroism

NNRTI

non-nucleoside reverse

transcriptase inhibitor

CDC

center for disease control

NO

nitric oxide

CDER

Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, FDA

NOAEL

no adverse effect level

CDK

cyclin-dependent kinase

NOE

nuclear Overhauser effect

cDNA

complementary deoxyribonucleic acid

NOEL

no-effect level

CETP

cholesteryl ester transfer protein

NOESY

nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy

cGLP

current good laboratory practices

NOS

nitric oxide synthase

cGMP

current good manufacturing practice; 3,5'-cyclic guanosine monophosphate

NPY

neuropeptide Y

CGRP

calcitonin gene-related peptide

NRT

natural resonance theory

CHF

congestive heart failure

NRTI

nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor

CHK1

checkpoint kinase 1

NSAID

non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug

CHK2

checkpoint kinase 2

NSCLC

non-small cell lung cancer

CHMP

Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use

Nu

nucleophile

Ci

curie

o

ortho

CI

chemical ionization; configuration interaction

obsd

observed

CIDNP

chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization

OCT

organic cation transporter

CIF

crystallographic information file

OD

optical density

CKD

chronic kidney disease

ORD

optical rotary dispersion

cLopP

calculated logP

p

para

cm

centimeter(s)

PAF

platelet activating factor

cm–1

wavenumber(s)

PAGE

polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

 CML

chronic myelogenous leukemia

PAM

positive allosteric modulator

CMV

cytomegalovirus

PAMPA

parallel artificial membrane

 permeability assay

CNS

central nervous system

PAS

peripheral anionic site

CoA

coenzyme A

PBO

placebo

cod

1,5-cyclooctadiene

PBS

phosphate buffered saline

CoMFA

comparative molecular field analysis

PCA

principle component analysis

compd

compound

PCC

pyridinium chlorochromate

CoMSIA

computational molecular similarity index analysis

PCR

polymerase chain reaction

concd

concentrated

PD

pharmacodynamics; Parkinson's disease

conc; concn

concentration

PDB

Protein Data Bank

COPD

chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

PDC

pyridinium dichromate

CoQ

coenzyme Q10

PDE

phosphodiesterase

COSY

correlation spectroscopy

PEG

polyethylene glycol

COX

cyclooxygenase

PES

photoelectron spectroscopy

Cp

cyclopentadienyl

PET

positron emission tomography

CRH

corticotrophin-releasing hormone

P-gp

P-glycoprotein

CRP

C-reactive protein

Ph

phenyl

CSF

cerebrospinal fluid

PI3K

phosphoinositide 3-kinase

CV

cyclic voltammetry

PIPES

1,4-piperazinediethanesulfonic acid;

 piperazine-N,N’-bis(2-ethanesulfonic acid)

Cy

cyclohexyl

PK

pharmacokinetics

CYP

cytochrome P

PKA

protein kinase A

d

day(s); doublet (spectral); deci

PKB

protein kinase B

d

density

PKC

protein kinase C

DA

dopamine

PLS

partial least squares

DABCO

1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane

pm

picometer(s)

DART

developmental and reproductive toxicology

PM3

parametric method 3

DAT

dopamine transporter

PMB

p-methoxybenzyl

DBN

1,5-diazabicyclo[4.3.0]non-5-ene

PNS

peripheral nervous system

DBP

diastolic blood pressure

po

oral administration

DBU

1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene

PPA

poly(phosphoric acid)

DCC

N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide

PPAR

peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor

DCE

1,2-dichloroethane

PPB

plasma protein binding

DCM

dichloromethane

ppm

part(s) per million

DDI

drug-drug interaction

PPTS

pyridinium para-toluenesulfonate

DDQ

2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-

benzoquinone

Pr

propyl

DDT

1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl

)ethane

PRH

prolactin releasing hormone

de

diastereomeric excess

PSA

polar surface area

DEAD

diethyl azodicarboxylate

psi

pounds per square inch

dec

decomposition

PT

perturbation theory; prothrombin time

DEPT

distortionless enhancement by

polarization transfer

PTT

partial thromboplastin time

DFT

density functional theory

PTC

phase-transfer catalysis

DIBALH

diisobutylaluminum hydride

PTH

parathyroid hormone

DIO

diet induced obesity

PXR

pregnane X receptor

DLT

dose limiting toxicity

py

pyridine

DMA

dimethylacetamide

q

quartet (spectral)

DMAP

4-(N,N-dimethylamino)pyridine

q.d.

once daily ("quaque die")

DMDO

dimethyldioxirane

q.i.d.

four times a day (dosing)

 ("quater in die")

DME

1,2-dimethoxyethane

QSAR

quantitative structure–activity

relationship

DMF

dimethylformamide

QSPR

quantitative structure-property

relationship

DMPK

drug metabolism and

 pharmacokinetics

QW

once a week (dosing)

DMPU

1,3-dimethyl-3,4,5,6-tetrahydro

-2(1H)-pyrimidinone

RAS

renin-angiotensin system

DMSO

dimethyl sulfoxide

RBC

red blood cell

DMT

4,4'-dimethoxytrityl (4,4'-dimethoxyltriphenylmethyl)

RCM

ring-closure metathesis

DNA

deoxyribonucleic acid

redox

reduction–oxidation

Dopa

3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)alanine

(also DOPA)

Rf

retention factor (in chromatography)

DTT

dithiothreitol

RHF

restricted Hartree–Fock

e.g.

for example (exempli gratia)

RIA

radioimmunoassay

E1

unimolecular elimination

rmsd

root mean square deviation

E2

bimolecular elimination

RNA

ribonucleic acid

EC50

half maximal effective

 concentration

RO5

rule of five (Lipinski)

ECG

electrocardiogram

ROESY

rotating frame Overhauser effect

spectroscopy

ED50

dose effective in 50% of

 test subjects

ROMP

ring-opening metathesis

 polymerization

EDTA

ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid

ROS

reactive oxygen species

ee

enantiomeric excess

rpm

revolutions per minute

EEG

electroencephalogram

rRNA

ribosomal ribonucleic acid

EGF

epidermal growth factor

rt

room temperature

EGFR

epidermal growth factor receptor

s

singlet (spectral); second(s)

EI

electron impact

s-Bu

sec-butyl

EKG

electrocardiogram

SAHA

suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid

ELISA

enzyme-linked

immunosorbent

assay

SAR

structure–activity relationship

EPR

electron paramagnetic

 resonance

SARM

selective androgen receptor

modulator

eq

equation

SBDD

structure-based drug discovery

equiv

equivalent

SBP

systolic blood pressure

er

enantiomer ratio

sc

subcutaneous

ERK

extracellular regulated kinase

SCF

self-consistent field

ESI

electrospray ionization

SDS

sodium dodecyl sulfate

ESR

electron spin resonance

SEM

scanning electron microscopy

Et

ethyl

SERM

selective estrogen-receptor modulator

et al.

and others

SERT

serotonin transporter

etc.

and so forth

SET

single electron transfer

F%

% oral bioavailability

SFC

supercritical fluid chromatography

FAAH

fatty acid amide hydrolase

SIRT1

silent mating type information

regulation 2 homolog 1

FAB

fast atom bombardment

SN'

nucleophilic substitution with

allylic rearrangement

FAD

flavin adenine dinuleotide

SN1

unimolecular nucleophilic substitution

FaSSIF

fasted state simulated

intestinal fluid

SN2

bimolecular nucleophilic substitution

FBDD

fragment-based drug discovery

SNP

single nucleotide polymorphism

FD

field desorption

SOMO

single-occupied molecular orbital

FDA

Food and Drug Administration

SPECT

single-photon emission computed

tomography

FeSSIF

fed state simulated i

ntestinal fluid

PR

surface plasmon resonance;

stroboscopic pulse radiolysis

FGF

fibroblast growth factor

SSRI

selective serotonin reuptakeinhibitor

FID

flame ionization detector;

free induction decay

T

absolute temperature in units

of kelvins (K)

Fmoc

9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl

t

time; temperature in units of

degrees Celsius (ºC)

FRET

Förster resonance

energy transfer

t

triplet (spectral)

FSH

follicle-stimulating hormone

t-Bu

tert-butyl

FT

Fourier transform

t1/2

half-time

g

gram(s); prefix to

 NMR abbreviation

denoting gradient-selected

 (e.g. gCOSY, gHMQC)

t.i.d.

three times daily ("ter in die")

GABA

Gama aminobutyric acid

T2DM

type 2 diabetes mellitus

GC

gas chromatography

TAE

tris-acetate-EDTA

GDP

guanosine 5'-diphosphate

TB

tuberculosis

GERD

gastroesophogeal reflux disease

TBAB

tetrabutylammonium bromide

GFP

green fluorescent protein

TBAC

tetrabutylammonium chloride

GFR

glomerular filtration rate

TBAF

tetrabutylammonium fluoride

GI

gastrointestinal

TBHP

tert-butyl hydroperoxide

GLP-1

glucagon like peptide-1

TBS

tert-butyldimethylsilyl

GlyR

glycine receptor

TCA

trichloroacetic acid

GMP

guanosine 5'-monophosphate;

 guanosine 5'-phosphate

TCA

tricyclic antidepressant

GnRH

gonadotropin-releasing hormone

TCNE

tetracyanoethylene

GPCR

G-protein coupled receptor

TDDFT

time-dependent density

functional theory

GFR

growth factor receptor

TEAB

tetraethylammonium bromide

GST

glutathione S-transferase

temp

temperature

GTP

guanosine 5'-triphosphate

Tf

trifluoromethanesulfonyl (triflyl)

h

hour(s); human

TFA

trifluoroacetic acid

HBA

hydrogen bond acceptors

TFAA

trifluoroacetic anhydride

HBD

hydrogen bond donors

THF

tetrahydrofuran

HBV

hepatitis B virus

THP

tetrahydropyran-2-yl

HCS

high-content screening

TIPS

triisopropylsilyl

HCV

hepatitis C virus

TK

toxicokinetics

HDAC

histone deacetylase

TLC

thin-layer chromatography

hERG

human Ether-a-go-go-Relate

d Gene

TLR

toll-like receptor

HDL-C

high-density lipoprotein

cholesterol

TMAI

tetramethylammonium iodide

HEK

human embryonic kidney

TMEDA

N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-1,2-

ethylenediamine

HF

Hartree–Fock

TMS

trimethylsilyl; tetramethylsilane

HGH

human growth hormone

TNF

tumor necrosis factor

HIV

human immunodeficiency virus

TNF-alpha

tumor necrosis factor-alpha

HMBC

heteronuclear multiple

 bond correlation

TOF

time of flight

HMPA

hexamethylphosphoric

triamide

 (hexamethylphosphoramide)

TON

turn over number (in catalysis)

HMQC

heteronuclear multiple

quantum correlation

tR

retention time (in chromatography)

HOMO

highest occupied molecular orbital

Tr

triphenylmethyl (trityl)

HPLC

high-performance liquid

 chromatography; high-pressure liquid chromatography

Tris

tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane

HPV

human papilloma virus

tRNA

transfer ribonucleic acid

HR

heart rate

Ts

para-toluenesulfonyl (tosyl)

HRMS

high-resolution mass

 spectrometry

TS

transition state

HRT

hormone replacement therapy

TSH

thyroid stimulating hormone

HSA

human serum albumin

TT

thrombin time

HSP

heat shock protein

UDP

uridine 5'-diphosphate

HSQC

heteronuclear single

quantum correlation

UHF

unrestricted Hartree–Fock

HSV

herpes simplex virus

UHPLC

ultra-high pressure liquid

 chromatography

HTS

high throughput screening

UV

ultraviolet

Hz

hertz

v.i.

see below (vide infra)

i-NOS

inducible nitric oxide synthase

v.s.

see above (vide supra)

i-Pr

isopropyl

v/v

volume per unit volume

 (volume- to-volume ratio)

IC50

half-maximum inhibitory

 concentration

VCD

vibrational circular dichroism

IB

inflammatory bowel disease

VEGFR

vascular endothelial growth

 factor receptor

IBS

irritable bowel syndrome

vis

visible

ICR

ion cyclotron resonance

viz.

namely

icv

intracerebroventricular (dosing)

VLDL

very low density lipoprotein

Ig

immunoglobulin

vol

volume

iGluR

ionotropic glutamate receptor

VRE

vancomycin resistant enterococci

IHC

immunohistochemistry

WBA

whole body autoradiography

IM

intramuscularly

w/w

weight per unit weight

 (weight-to-weight ratio)

INDO

intermediate neglect of

 differentialoverlap

WT

wild type

ip

intraperitoneally

wt

weight

IP

ionization potential

XAFS

X-ray absorption fine structure

spectroscopy

IR

infrared

ZINDO

Zerner parameterization of

 intermediate neglect of

 differential overlap

 

 

 

Istanbul Medipol University